The word "surgery" is derived from the Greek χειρουργική (cheirourgikē) (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), by way of Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". The same root appears in the verb "to operate" (from the Latin: operari, to work, labour). A surgeon is a physician who practices surgery. A surgeon's goal is to improve patient outcomes. There are various surgical specialties, each with its own training requirements. A surgeon must be able to carry out surgery on all parts of the human body apart from the central nervous system. A surgeon must also have an ability to assess patients who need emergency intervention and act accordingly. A surgeon specializes in the treatment of diseases and trauma of the body by incision or manipulation for repair or removal. Surgery often entails cutting into flesh, breaking bones and dealing with other invasive procedures that could cause harm if carried out incorrectly. Some types of surgery are relatively minor operations that can be done under local anaesthesia, while others are major operations that require general anaesthesia and need intensive care after surgery.

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